We recently got this error when installing Maya 2016 and the error was not very useful because it was not a permissions issue. The installation was only problematic on one of the workstations and the deployment had worked on other computers at this site. We even tried a direct install from setup.exe from the C:\Autodesk folder.
In this case, we used Process Monitor to check out the problem and we used the same exact workflow as this issue:
It stated that there was a problem with the installation of Bifrost, one of the components of Maya 2016.
When I remoted into the computer, I saw an AVG icon on the desktop of the computer. AVG has been known to cause installation issues. Sometimes, you can disable it to solve the problem but sometimes, you need to uninstall it.
The answer [Uninstall AVG] to this issue is noted in this article:
Thanks to Scott Broad for confirming that this was the issue.
Bonus Error Message: